BEHAVIORAL METHODOLOGY

THE NATURE OF LEARNING

What is learning?
Learned versus innate behaviors
Learning is not necessarily conscious
Learning as a kind of plasticity
Criteria for learning
Approaches to Learning
Learning from multiple perspectives
Causes of behavior
Historical Precedents
Locke & the associationists
Structuralism
Behaviorism & Watson
Ethological approach
Cognitive approach
Neuroscience

STIMULUS PREEXPOSURE EFFECTS

Potential effects of stimulus preexposure
Criteria
Habituation
Phenomena: dishabituation and spontaneous recovery
Evidence it does not reflect a peripheral modification
The importance of testing under common conditions
Sensitization
Examples
Versus dishabituation

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING

The methodology
Components (CS, US, CR & UR)
Criteria
Ways of studying Pavlovian conditioning
Excitation and inhibition
Interactions with stimulus preexposure effects
Latent inhibition
US preexposure effect
An example of CS enhancement: immediate shock deficit
An example of US enhancement
A new classification scheme
Common behavioral principles
Stimulus generalization
Similarities between habituation and extinction
When does learning occur
Contiguity
Historical answer: contiguity is necessary and sufficient
Challenges to necessity: Taste aversion learning
Challenges to sufficiency
Overshadowing and blocking
Potential accounts
Contingency
Random US experiment
Informational account
Learning without a US
Second-order conditioning
Sensory preconditioning
Disentangling learning from performance
Evidence a backwards trained CS supports learning (Miller)
Nature of the CR observed varies depending on its temporal relation